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history chronology

CHRONOLOGY

1922

The State Scientific Council ratified a status of the State Radium Institute, which specified "Radium Institute to be conducted by National Commissariat for Education, carrying out research activities related to the Russian Academy of Sciences".

1922

Educational Committee and Presidium of All-Russia Council for National Economy accepted "The Statement for Radium Institute and Radium Plant".

1922

The works aimed at scientific and technical support to radium industry.

1923

Council for Labor and Defense accepted a decree about forming of the State Stock of Radium produced in RSFSR at Radium Institute.

1924

Commencement of works to study the properties of cosmic rays under L.V. Mysovskiy leadership.

1924

V.G. Khlopin started with his course of lectures in "Radiochemistry" at Chemical department of Leningrad University.

1925

Creation of the installation to produce radon ("radium emanation") to be used for research-and-technical and medical purposes.

1925

L.V. Mysovskiy and A.P. Zhdanov proposed a method to study heavy ionizing particles, using thick-layer photo emulsions.

1925

V.G. Khlopin presented a report on "USSR advances in the field of radioactive substances' at the IV Mendeleev Congress.

1926

L.V. Mysovskiy elaborated gamma-ray flow detection method to detect imperfections in metal products.

1927

V.G. Khlopin set out a law for micro-component distribution between solid phase and solution (Khlopin's Law).

1930

Start of Radium Institute's Proceeding publishing.

1932

Radium Institute organized the I All-Union Conference for radiochemistry.

1932

Arrangement of Committee under V.I. Vernadskiy chairmanship with the purpose to determine absolute age of geological formations by radioactive methods.

1932

At the suggestion of G.A. Gamov and L.V. Mysovskiy Scientific Council of the Institute made a decision to erect the first in Europe Cyclotron.

1933

L.V. Komlev determined general chemical objective laws of natural radium solutions originating, presented explanation of radio-element genesis in waters thanks to leaching from ordinary rocks, generally accepted at the present time.

1936

B.A. Nikitin discovered a number of molecular compounds of noble gases.

1936

I.V. Kourchatov, B.V. Kourchatov, A.I. Rusinov, and L.V. Mysovskiy discovered a phenomenon of man-made nucleus isometry.

1936

A,B. Verigo, Senior Scientist from Radium Institute, incorporated into a crew of USSR-1-BIS stratosphere balloon, made a flight to the stratosphere with the purpose to study cosmic rays.

1937

Under leadership of L.V. Mysovskiy and I.V. Kourchatov in physical department of Radium Institute there was activated the first in Europe cyclotron.

1938

Radium Institute was transferred from the system of Glavnauka under Narcompros (scientific department of National Commissariat for Education) to the system of the USSR Academy of Sciences and got the name "RIAN".

1938

At Radium Institute they established the first in the USSR laboratory of man-made radioactive elements (Chief of laboratory - A.E. Polesitskiy).

1939

The first application by A.A. Greenberg and A.E. Polesitskiy of the method of isotope indicators in the chemistry of composite compounds.

1939

V.G. Khlopin, L.V. Mysovskiy, A.P. Zhdanov, N.A. Perfilov, et al. Published their works on uranium nucleus fission caused by neutrons.

1940

G.N. Flerov and K.A. Petrzhak discovered heavy nuclei spontaneous fission phenomenon by the example of uranium.

1940

Uranium Commission chaired by V.G. Khlopin was formed under the USSR Academy of Sciences.

1941

V.G. Khlopin presented the report on "Transformation of Elements and Periodical Law" at the I Mendeleev Reading at the Leningrad University.

1941

The Institute was evacuated to the city of Kazan; this period working was aimed at permanent action phosphors containing radiothorium, required for the front. A group of Institute's employees, headed by professor A.B. Verigo, which prepared radium-based phosphors for the purposes of Leningrad Front, worked in Leningrad under Blockade.

1942

A.P. Zhdanov and L.V. Mysovskiy discovered a new type of nuclear fission: complete decay of a nucleus under an effect of cosmic ray multi-charge particles.

1943

V.G. Khlopin addressed a letter to SEC and the USSR AS, substantiating the necessity of Radium Institute participation in Uranium Project.

1943

According to the Government decision Radium Institute was entrusted with a task to develop the technology for eka-rhenium (Z = 93) and eka-osmium (Z = 94) recovery from neutron-irradiated uranium.

1945

Radium Institute returned from evacuation to Leningrad.

1945

Prime domestic plutonium preparation was obtained in sample quantities with the help of cyclotron.

1945

Start of the works on beta and gamma nuclear spectroscopy, headed by B.S. Dzhelepov.

1945

According to the Government decision Radium Institute was entrusted with the following tasks: check and examination of plutonium extraction methods; researches in plutonium chemistry; elaboration of process flowchart for plutonium recovery from irradiated uranium;Technological data return to the factory.

1945

The first in the USSR radiochemistry chair was established at Leningrad University. It was headed by V.G. Khlopin, and since 1949 - by I.E. Starik.

1946

Under the leadership of V.G. Khlopin there was completed elaboration of the first domestic technology of plutonium production from irradiated uranium. Radium Institute together with designers (Ya.I. Zilberman and N.K. Khovanskiy) from GIPH (State Institute for Applied Chemistry) projected technological part of design statement for the object "B" ("Blue Book"), which included all the necessary initial data to be used in design of radiochemical plant.

1947

G.M. Tolmachev designed radiochemical method to determine a factor of nuclear fuel utilization at nuclear explosions.

1948

Operating of the first in the USSR radiochemical plant was started in the region of Chelyabinsk under the leadership of Radium Institute and on the basis of acetate precipitation technology. To 1949 they had accumulated plutonium produced in quantity required for realization of nuclear weapons tests.

1949

The first in the USSR atomic bomb was tested successfully with participation of Radium Institute's employees.

1949

Polonium-beryllium sources were designed as a bursting charge for prime generation nuclear bombs under the leadership of D.M. Ziv.

1950

The USSR Academy of Sciences established V.G. Khlopin Award.

1950

The name of V.G. Khlopin was bestowed to Radium Institute.

1951

Start of annual All-Union conferences on nuclear spectroscopy under the chairmanship of B.S. Dzhelepov.

1952

E.K. Herling discovered by the way of geochemical investigations that K-trapping for potassium-40 was probable; there were conducted first experiments on determination of mineral age by argon method.

1953

Employees of Radium Institute took part in successful realization of the first in the world surface thermonuclear explosion at Semipalatinsk ground.

1953

The first permanent station was organized at Radium Institute with the purpose to collect and analyze environmental samples to determine a content of induced radioactivity in these samples.

1954

D.M. Ziv proposed the principle allowing for alpha-emitting radionuclide (plutonium-239) fixation in a layer of inorganic enamel, serving as a basis for mass commercial production of ionizing radiation sources destined to remove static electricity.

1955

Start of the works headed by M.F. Poushlenkov on selective plutonium recovery with the help of tributylphosphate.

1959

Radium Institute reached prime data on strontium-90 content in the Black Sea waters.

1959

The first number of "Radiochemistry" journal was published (chief editor - director of Radium Institute V.M. Vdovenko, and later - B.P. Nickolskiy).

1961

Radium Institute entered the system of research institutions under the USSR Minsredmash (later - USSR Minatom).

1961

Radium Institute organized the first in the country Meeting devoted to nuclear fission physics.

1962

Start of field working to study contamination of seas and oceans with radio elements induced.

1962

Start of "Radiochemistry" journal publishing in English version.

1964

Comprehensive researches conducted at the first in the USSR dissection of a cavity caused by underground nuclear explosion in granites at Semipalatinsk ground.

1965

A.A. Rimskiy-Korsakov, O.V. Lozhkin, et al. discovered super-heavy helium isotope - helium-8.

1965

The first in the USSR peaceful underground nuclear explosion was realized with participation of Radium Institute's employees at Semipalatinsk ground with the purpose to create an artificial pool in a steep

1965

The works were started to create standard spectrometric radiation sources.

1967

Construction of Scientific and Experimental Complex (SEC) for the Radium Institute was completed in the city of Gatchina.

1970

Comprehensive field investigation of Techa - Iset - Tobol - Irtysh - Ob (up to the city of Salekhard) river system, as a territory subjected to Kyshtym accident.

1970

The first Khlopin Reading was realized at Radium Institute.

1971

Inter-branch Scientific Council for the problem of "Radiochemistry, Chemistry of actinide and fission-fragment elements" was established at the Section of Chemical-and-Technological and Biological Sciences under the USSR AS Presidium and the USSR SAEC STA (the first Chairman of the Council was V.M. Vdovenko, since 1972 - B.P. Nickolskiy). In 1978 the Council was renamed into Inter-branch Scientific Council for Radiochemistry under the USSR AS Presidium and the USSR SAEC (the first Chairman of the Council was B.P. Nickolskiy).

1971

Radium Institute was awarded with "Mark of Honour" Order.

1972

Processing of the first batch of spent nuclear fuel at SEC.

1975

Flight of Soyuz Spaceship (in accordance with Soyuz - Apollo Program) equipped with airborne altitude indicator based on heat-resistant shockproof source with cesium-137, designed at Radium Institute.

1976

Radium Institute was included into the System of IAEA National Analytical Laboratories for nuclear weapons non-proliferation guarantees.

1976

Radium Institute together with VNIINM, VNIIChT, and a number of other organizations introduced the new technology of plutonium selective recovery at Mayak Chemical Combine (Ozersk city).

1977

Commencement of works on radioactive waste solidification.

1978

Participation of the Institute's employees in the first international Danube River expedition organized within the frameworks of IAEA Program to analyze an effect of NPP to environmental conditions in Danube Region.

1981

Commencement of works aimed at creation of standard patterns of nuclear materials.

1981

Radium Institute together with VNIIChT realized the introduction of "selective extraction" technology at MCC (Zheleznogorsk city).

1982

Radium Institute was awarded with the Labor Red Banner Order.

1983

Participation in elaboration of IAEA fundamental geological criteria for radioactive waste disposal in geological stratums.

1985

Commencement of Radium Institute's works on the Baltic Sea radioactive contamination monitoring within the frameworks of USSR (Russia) national obligations under the Helsinki Convention (HELCOM - IAEA).

1985

Creation of the first krypton and large tritium gas-filled radio luminescent light sources.

1986

Radium Institute's radiometric motorcade laboratory implemented prime investigation in the territories adjoining to Chernobyl NPP. Start of active participation of the Institute in elimination of Chernobyl NPP accident aftereffects.

1986

Radium Institute together with VNIINM realized the introduction of "selective extraction" technology at SCC (Tomsk city).

1988

V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute Museum was opened.

1988

Realization of the first foreign delivery of Institute's isotope products.

1988

Establishment of V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute RPA (Research and Production Association).

1989

Russian spaceman A.Serebrov stepped out into the outer space with gamma-spectrometer SPIN-6000, which had been created at Radium Institute.

1989

Radium Institute under IAEA assistance hold the International Conference "Nuclear fission - 50 years".

1990

Initiation of radiopharmaceutical supply to Leningrad hospitals.

1991

Commencement of long-term works aimed at monitoring of nuclear submarine Komsomolets nuclear ammunition and reactor conditions, and environmental monitoring in the region of its collapse.

1992

Radium Institute was transferred to the system of The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy, at present - RF Federal Agency for Atomic Energy (Rosatom).

1993

The first RFFI Grant awarded to the Institute.

1994

According to the decision of the Government the Emergency and Technical Center (ATC) was established on the base of Radium Institute.

1994

Commencement of long-term cooperative works with the USA and Kazakhstan Republic aimed at investigations at the former Semipalatinsk ground, and sealing of test tunnels.

1995

The first ISTC Grant awarded to the Institute.

1996

HI VNIPIET completed Technical and Economic Substantiation to the new design of RT-2 Plant (the second version) on the basis of the data provided by Radium Institute.

1996

Commissioning at Mayak Chemical Combine of commercial installation for high-level waste fractioning, designed by Radium Institute's employees together with Combine's specialists.

1996

Commencement of works on fluid recovery of radioactive elements by supercritical carbon dioxide.

1997

The first Russian patent obtained by Radium Institute together with a foreign company.

1997

Commencement of cooperative Russian and American works aimed at creation of systems for physical protection and nuclear material account and control at Radium Institute.

2000

Participation in the works on radiation investigation of marine environment in the region of nuclear submarine Koursk collapse.

2000

The first foreign patent obtained by Radium Institute together with a foreign company.

2000

Radium Institute hold the Third All-Russian Radiochemical conference ("Radiochemistry-2000") devoted to 100-year birthday anniversary of academician B.P. Nickolskiy.

2001

On evidence of geological investigations of Nizhnekanskiy granitoid massif (Southern-Yeniseyan Ridge) there was proved the possibility to construct the first stage underground repository of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel.

2003

Publishing of Radium Institute Proceeding was restored.
 
Copyright 2005-2012  Khlopin Radium Institute
Updated: April 25, 2012
 
































































































































































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